81-1983 IEEE Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity Ground Impedance and Earth Surface Potentials of a Ground System Part 1: Normal Measurements
The technique of measuring ground resistance and impedance, earth resistivity, potential gradients from currents in the earth, and the prediction of the magnitudes of ground resistance and potential gradients from scale model tests are described and discussed. Factors influencing the choice of instruments and the techniques for various types of measurements are covered. These include the purpose of the measurement, the accuracy required, the type of instruments available, possible sources of error, and the nature of the ground or grounding system under test. Large power station ground grids and counterpoises of transmission lines are examples of such grounding systems. The standard is intended to assist the engineer or technician in obtaining and interpreting accurate, reliable data. It describes test procedures which promote the safety of personnel and property, and prevent interference with the operation of neighboring facilities.