Smart Grid and Power System Topologies
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By Mehrdad Rostami and Mehrdad Boloorchi
The penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in primary distribution systems which operate in a radial and open-loop topology, need smarter primary network, especially for dealing with the variable generations such as solar photovoltaic and wind turbine generator, as well as demand response. This provides the condition to have highly resilient and self-healing primary network with a flexible and dynamic topology, which operates as an interconnected smart microgrids. However, realization of this goal requires careful study of the DER’s impact on primary system and their integration into the system. This article describes the impacts of DER integration into the grid and measures that shall be taken for their reasonable integration in order to substantiate a flexible and dynamic grid topology. Impacts of DER on grid varies for different types of DER, their applications, location, and characteristics of the power grid they are connected. These studies are called Distribution Impact Studies for Distributed Resource Interconnection, also known as CIA or Connection Impact Assessment. Some of the studies are discussed and possible impacts on the grid are highlighted.
By Shamsul Aizam Zulkifli and Ronald Jackson
In recent years, renewable energy sources (RES) are becoming more interesting research area due to their penetration into microgrid systems. It is also due to the decarbonization policy that has been set by the United Nations in order to reduce global warming, which has become a turning point for RES in generating more clean energy in the future. The integration of small generation systems of RES, such as solar photovoltaic panels, fuel cells and energy storage devices into low-voltage distribution networks has now led to congestion in existing electrical power systems.
By Abhishek Balakrishnan and Samartha Mohan
This article outlines the common challenges faced by the stakeholders of a generic interconnection agreement process and demonstrates how software automation can yield a more streamlined and efficient process. This paper uses ANB Systems’ eTRACK+ as a case study to show how a dynamic, highly configurable software platform can automate the process and complete applications as quickly as 20 minutes.