Smart Buildings: Approaches to Promoting Reliability of Smart Grid

Presented by: Dr. Raj Gopal, Smart Buildings and Smart Grid, Research Studies, Sustainable Energy and Smart Grid

To ensure meeting the reliability goals of the Smart Grid, Demand Response programs are offered by electric power utilities with incentives to participating customers in order to match power generation to demand and prevent network instability during peak demand periods. According to the Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) 2012 commercial building energy consumption survey (CBECS), large office buildings in the USA with floor area > 9,000 m¬2 consume annually 180 billion kWh. This comprises of HVAC (cooling 17%, ventilation 25%), lighting (17%) and plug loads comprising of computers, monitors, printers, servers and other electrical loads associated with occupant productivity (17%) and the rest miscellaneous loads. These loads mostly occur, given the occupancy schedule, during the on-peak periods for a summer peaking utility. The need to address Automatic Fault Detection, Diagnosis and System Restoration (AFDDS) becomes important when implementing demand response (DR) strategies whether it is price responsive or resource responsive in office buildings. Should faults occur in the building HVAC system, the kWh energy consumption and KW demand will increase negating the objectives of the Demand Response program. This presentation will cover: definitions for Smart Building HVAC System; Smart Building Facility Management System (SBFMS) Architecture; development of algorithms for AFDDS for an example HVAC system with self-healing and resiliency feature and discuss the results of ‘Smart Voice Activated Speaker’ experiments with lighting and Plug loads and opportunities for its integration with SBFMS.

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INTENDED AUDIENCE: Those interested in End-Users’ systems such as HVAC, Lighting and Plug loads on the Demand Side that impact the electric utility’s load profile as well those interested in Automatic Fault Detection, Diagnosis and System Restoration. Will benefit those interested in energy analysis of lighting and Plug loads using ‘Smart Voice Activated Speakers’ and their potential applications in buildings.



Dr. Raj GopalDr. Raj Gopal's current interest is performing Research Studies as a R&D Specialist in Sustainable Energy and Smart Grid. He is a member of ASHRAE and IEEE. He has served in ASHRAE Energy Calculations and Building Operations Dynamics technical committees, as a member of Standards Committee on Liquid Chilling Packages and as a Forum Chairman on Demand Side Management (DSM). His work experience includes working as a Scientist for a leading Building Automation System company and as a DSM engineer for leading Electric Power utilities and as a full time Consultant for Building Automation System companies. He has taught HVAC, Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics at UW Milwaukee and Milwaukee School of Engineering and holds patents in Thermal Energy Storage and Solar Energy. Has published and presented papers in peer reviewed conferences and publications including presentations on Smart Buildings as the main speaker at UW Madison's 'Wednesday Nite@the Lab' lecture series in December 2017 and at ASHRAE Madison Chapter meeting in September 2018. Also served as an Editor for ASME's Symposium volumes on "Heat Transfer in Energy Conservation" and "Energy Conservation in Building HVAC Systems". He has worked for 4 years as a Maintenance Engineer for a Multinational company. Dr. Gopal has a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Akron and MS from IIT Madras, India.


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